PLGA was functionalized with PEG and biotin using click chemistry to generate a biotin receptor targeted copolymer (Biotinylated-PEG-PLGA) which in turn was used to fabricate ultrafine nanoparticles (BPNP) of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) for effective delivery in 4T1 cell induced breast cancer. However adequate entrapment of a hydrophilic bioactive like DOX in a hydrophobic polymer system made of PLGA is not usually possible. We therefore modified a conventional W/O/W emulsion method by utilizing ammonium chloride in the external phase to constrain DOX in dissolved polymer phase by supressing its inherent aqueous solubility as per common ion effect. This resulted in over eight fold enhancement in entrapment efficiency of DOX inside BPNP, which otherwise is highly susceptible to leakage due to its relatively high aqueous solubility. TEM and DLS established BPNP to be sized below 100 nm, storage stability studies showed that BPNP were stable for one month at 4°C, and in vitro release suggested significant control in drug release. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to propound anticancer and antiproliferative activity of BPNP. Plasma and tissue distribution study supplemented by pertinent in vivo fluorescence imaging mapped the exact fate of DOX contained inside BPNP once it was administered intravenously. A comparative safety profile via acute toxicity studies in mice was also generated to out rightly establish usefulness of BPNP. Results suggest that BPNP substantially enhance anticancer activity of DOX whilst simultaneously mitigating its toxic potential due to altered spatial and temporal presentation of drug and consequently deserve further allometric iteration. - Source :PubMed
Vγ9Vδ2 T cells play an important role in the cross talk of the innate and adaptive immune system. For their activation by phosphoantigens (PAgs) both cell surface receptors the eponymous Vγ9Vδ2 T cell antigen receptors (Vγ9Vδ2 TCRs) on Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) on the phosphoantigen-"presenting" cell are mandatory. To find yet undetected further contributing proteins a biotinylated, photocrosslinkable benzophenone probe BioBP-HMBPP (2) was synthesized from a known allyl alcohol in nine steps and overall 16% yield. 2 is based on the picomolar PAg (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate (HMBPP, 1). Laser irradiation of 2 at 308 nm initiated the photocrosslinking reaction with proteins. When the B30.2 domain of BTN3A1, which contains a positively charged PAg-binding pocket, was exposed to increasing amounts of HMBPP (1) labeling by BioBP-HMBPP (2) was reduced significantly. Since BSA labeling was not impaired, clearly 2 binds to the same site as natural ligand 1. Thus, BioBP-HMBPP (2) is a suitable tool to identify co-ligands or receptors involved in PAg-mediated T cell activation. - Source :PubMed
Biotin, also known as Vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B vitamin that acts as an essential cofactor for several carboxylases involved in the cellular metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, and gluconeogenesis. Although there exists an incredible amount of social media hype and market advertising touting its efficacy for the improvement of hair quantity and quality, biotin's efficacy for hair remains largely unsubstantiated in scientific literature. We reviewed all pertinent scientific literature regarding the efficacy of biotin supplementation for hair growth and quality improvement, and we also investigated its popularity in society defined as a function of market analytics. To date, there have been no clinical trials conducted to investigate the efficacy of biotin supplementation for the treatment of alopecia of any kind, nor has there been any randomized controlled trial to study its effect on hair quality and quantity in human subjects. Because of the lack of clinical evidence, its use to improve hair quantity or quality is not routinely recommended. However, societal infatuation with biotin supplementation is not only propagated by its glamorization in popular media, its popularity is vastly disproportionate to the insufficient clinical evidence supporting it's efficacy in hair improvement. In other words, biotin supplements are quite "in vogue", without there being any real reason to be so. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(5):496-500.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(5):496-500.. - Source :PubMed
This letter reports a study with a single 10 mg oral dose of biotin in 19 health subjects. The acute use of biotin interferes with measurement of TSH, free T4 and T3, in a fashion similar to a hyperthyroid subject, and the changes are reversible 24 hours after the biotin ingestion. - Source :PubMed
Small noncoding RNAs are essential for gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Northern blot is the most used method for small RNA detection in tissues. Here we present an improved protocol for the Northern blot-based small RNA detection from plant tissues by using biotin-labeled probes. MicroRNAs and small interfering RNAs derived from Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa, respectively, have been detected with this methodology. Results suggest that this method is sensitive and efficient enough to detect small RNAs from plant tissues by using as low as 5 μg of total RNA. Furthermore, biotin-labeled probes are safer and easier to store for long term than radiolabeled probes. - Source :PubMed