RAT ANTI HUMAN CD28 Biotin

Price:
416 EUR
499 USD
345 GBP
known as: RAT ANTI HUMAN CD28 Biotin
Catalog number: genta-ABS0637
Product Quantity: 0.1 mg
Category:
Supplier: AbD

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Gene target: cd28

Related genes to: RAT ANTI HUMAN CD28 Biotin

Symbol : biotin NIH gene
LocusTag : Bathy11g00270
chromosome : 11
description : biotin synthase
type of gene : protein-coding
Modification date : 2015-06-26
Symbol : cd28 NIH gene
chromosome : Un
description : CD28 molecule
type of gene : protein-coding
Modification date : 2015-11-14

Related Pathways to: RAT ANTI HUMAN CD28 Biotin

Gene about :Cd28
Pathway :Rn Inflammatory Response Pathway
Cd28
Gene about :biotin
Pathway :Sc Protein Modifications
biotin

Related product to: RAT ANTI HUMAN CD28 Biotin

Related Articles about: RAT ANTI HUMAN CD28 Biotin

Selective CD28 blockade results in superior inhibition of donor-specific T follicular helper cell and antibody responses relative to CTLA-4-Ig.

Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) are a barrier to improved long-term outcomes following kidney transplantation. Costimulation blockade with CTLA-4-Ig has shown promise as a potential therapeutic strategy to control DSA. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, a subset of CD4(+) T cells required for optimum antibody production, are reliant on the CD28 costimulatory pathway. We have previously shown that selective CD28 blockade leads to superior allograft survival through improved control of CD8(+) T cells relative to CTLA-4-Ig, but the impact of CD28-specific blockade on CD4(+) Tfh cells is unknown. Thus, we identified and characterized donor-reactive Tfh cells in a murine skin transplant model, and then utilized this model to evaluate the impact of selective CD28 blockade with an anti-CD28 domain antibody (dAb) on the donor-specific Tfh-mediated immune response. We observed that the anti-CD28 dAb led to superior inhibition of donor-reactive CXCR5(+) PD-1(hi) Tfh and CD95(+) GL7(+) germinal center B cells, and DSA formation as compared to CTLA-4-Ig. Interestingly, donor-reactive Tfh cells differentially upregulated CTLA-4 expression, suggesting an important role for CTLA-4 in mediating the superior inhibition observed with the anti-CD28 dAb. Therefore, selective CD28 blockade as a novel approach to control Tfh cell responses and prevent DSA after kidney transplantation warrants further study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - Source :PubMed

Click biotinylation of PLGA template for biotin receptor oriented delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride in 4T1 cell induced breast cancer.

PLGA was functionalized with PEG and biotin using click chemistry to generate a biotin receptor targeted copolymer (Biotinylated-PEG-PLGA) which in turn was used to fabricate ultrafine nanoparticles (BPNP) of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) for effective delivery in 4T1 cell induced breast cancer. However adequate entrapment of a hydrophilic bioactive like DOX in a hydrophobic polymer system made of PLGA is not usually possible. We therefore modified a conventional W/O/W emulsion method by utilizing ammonium chloride in the external phase to constrain DOX in dissolved polymer phase by supressing its inherent aqueous solubility as per common ion effect. This resulted in over eight fold enhancement in entrapment efficiency of DOX inside BPNP, which otherwise is highly susceptible to leakage due to its relatively high aqueous solubility. TEM and DLS established BPNP to be sized below 100 nm, storage stability studies showed that BPNP were stable for one month at 4°C, and in vitro release suggested significant control in drug release. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to propound anticancer and antiproliferative activity of BPNP. Plasma and tissue distribution study supplemented by pertinent in vivo fluorescence imaging mapped the exact fate of DOX contained inside BPNP once it was administered intravenously. A comparative safety profile via acute toxicity studies in mice was also generated to out rightly establish usefulness of BPNP. Results suggest that BPNP substantially enhance anticancer activity of DOX whilst simultaneously mitigating its toxic potential due to altered spatial and temporal presentation of drug and consequently deserve further allometric iteration. - Source :PubMed

A photocrosslinkable biotin derivative of the phosphoantigen (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate (HMBPP) activates Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and binds to the HMBPP site of BTN3A1.

Vγ9Vδ2 T cells play an important role in the cross talk of the innate and adaptive immune system. For their activation by phosphoantigens (PAgs) both cell surface receptors the eponymous Vγ9Vδ2 T cell antigen receptors (Vγ9Vδ2 TCRs) on Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) on the phosphoantigen-"presenting" cell are mandatory. To find yet undetected further contributing proteins a biotinylated, photocrosslinkable benzophenone probe BioBP-HMBPP (2) was synthesized from a known allyl alcohol in nine steps and overall 16% yield. 2 is based on the picomolar PAg (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate (HMBPP, 1). Laser irradiation of 2 at 308 nm initiated the photocrosslinking reaction with proteins. When the B30.2 domain of BTN3A1, which contains a positively charged PAg-binding pocket, was exposed to increasing amounts of HMBPP (1) labeling by BioBP-HMBPP (2) was reduced significantly. Since BSA labeling was not impaired, clearly 2 binds to the same site as natural ligand 1. Thus, BioBP-HMBPP (2) is a suitable tool to identify co-ligands or receptors involved in PAg-mediated T cell activation. - Source :PubMed

Prevention of lupus nephritis development in NZB/NZW mice by selective blockade of CD28.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease. Autoantibodies (autoAbs) against double-stranded DNA (ds DNA), the hallmark of lupus, are produced and maintained by the interaction between auto-reactive B cells and CD4(+) T cells. This interplay is controlled by the CD28/CD80-86/CTLA-4 axis. Here we investigated whether selective blockade of CD28-CD80/86 co-stimulatory interactions abrogates lupus nephritis development in a murine model of SLE. To this aim, NZB/NZW F1 mice were treated for 3 months, either with an anti-CD28 Fab' fragment or a control Fab'-IgG. The effect of CD28 blockade on lupus nephritis onset, survival, production of anti-ds DNA antibodies and costimulatory molecules was evaluated. CD28 blockade prevented the development of lupus nephritis and prolonged survival during the 3-month treatment and 12 weeks after. Furthermore, the production of anti-ds DNA autoAbs was decreased. Lastly, the protective effect of CD28 blockade was associated with increased intrarenal expression of the immunoregulatory molecule, Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, of the co-inhibitory receptor programmed cell-Death - 1 (PD-1) and of its ligand programmed death ligand - 1 (PDL-1).In conclusion, CD28 blockade prevented the development of lupus nephritis in NZB/NZW F1 mice. This immunomodulatory strategy is a promising candidate for SLE therapy in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - Source :PubMed

The Infatuation With Biotin Supplementation: Is There Truth Behind Its Rising Popularity? A Comparative Analysis of Clinical Efficacy versus Social Popularity.

Biotin, also known as Vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B vitamin that acts as an essential cofactor for several carboxylases involved in the cellular metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, and gluconeogenesis. Although there exists an incredible amount of social media hype and market advertising touting its efficacy for the improvement of hair quantity and quality, biotin's efficacy for hair remains largely unsubstantiated in scientific literature. We reviewed all pertinent scientific literature regarding the efficacy of biotin supplementation for hair growth and quality improvement, and we also investigated its popularity in society defined as a function of market analytics. To date, there have been no clinical trials conducted to investigate the efficacy of biotin supplementation for the treatment of alopecia of any kind, nor has there been any randomized controlled trial to study its effect on hair quality and quantity in human subjects. Because of the lack of clinical evidence, its use to improve hair quantity or quality is not routinely recommended. However, societal infatuation with biotin supplementation is not only propagated by its glamorization in popular media, its popularity is vastly disproportionate to the insufficient clinical evidence supporting it's efficacy in hair improvement. In other words, biotin supplements are quite "in vogue", without there being any real reason to be so.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(5):496-500.

. - Source :PubMed

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