Gentaur's X-gal also known as 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-galactopyranoside is commonly applied chromogenic substrate for Beta galactosidase. It shows dark blue color. It should be stored at -20 degrees Celsius and far from direct sunlight.
Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite specific T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant. - Source :PubMed
Congenital toxoplasmosis is a serious but preventable and treatable disease. Gestational screening facilitates early detection and treatment of primary acquisition. Thus, fetal infection can be promptly diagnosed and treated and outcomes can be improved. - Source :PubMed
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder associated with neurochemical and neurobehavioural alterations. Aluminium (Al) is considered as a contributing factor in the etiology of several neurodegenerative disorders like AD. D-galactose (D-gal) is a physiological nutrient but over supply induces some neurochemical and biochemical changes that exacerbate natural aging process. In this study, we aimed to develop AD animal model by co-administration of Al and D-gal in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with AlCl3 and D-gal at a dose of 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively for one week. After one week rats were subjected to behavioural analysis. After behavioural analysis rats were decapitated to remove their brain. Biochemical and neurochemical analysis were conducted in whole brain. AlCl3+D-gal significantly induced depressive and anxious behaviour in rats. Rats cognitive abilities were also significantly impaired following AlCl3 and D-gal co-administration. AlCl3+D-gal significantly altered antioxidant enzyme activities and biogenic amine levels in whole brain. A marked increase in brain lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase activity was found in test rats. These findings suggest that co-administration of AlCl3 and D-gal for one week could induce AD like symptoms and may be used to develop AD animal model. - Source :PubMed
Specific IgM, administered together with the antigen it recognizes, enhances primary antibody responses, formation of germinal centers, and priming for secondary antibody responses. The response to all epitopes on the antigen to which IgM binds is usually enhanced. IgM preferentially enhances responses to large antigens such as erythrocytes, malaria parasites, and keyhole limpet hemocyanine. In order for an effect to be seen, antigens must be administered in suboptimal concentrations and in close temporal relationship to the IgM. Enhancement is dependent on the ability of IgM to activate complement, but the lytic pathway is not required. Enhancement does not take place in mice lacking complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) suggesting that the role of IgM is to generate C3 split products, i.e., the ligands for CR1/2. In mice, these receptors are expressed on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and B cells. Optimal IgM-mediated enhancement requires that both cell types express CR1/2, but intermediate enhancement is seen when only FDCs express the receptors and low enhancement when only B cells express them. These observations imply that IgM-mediated enhancement works through several, non-mutually exclusive, pathways. Marginal zone B cells can transport IgM-antigen-complement complexes, bound to CR1/2, from the marginal zone and deposit them onto FDCs. In addition, co-crosslinking of the BCR and the CR2/CD19/CD81 co-receptor complex may enhance signaling to specific B cells, a mechanism likely to be involved in induction of early extrafollicular antibody responses. - Source :PubMed
The 2-min walk test may be more appropriate functional exercise test for young children. This study aimed to examine the 2-min walk test's reliability; validity; and minimal clinically important difference; and to establish norms for children aged 6-12. - Source :PubMed