IgG antibodies are large molecules of about 150kilodalton made of four peptide chains. It contains two identical class γ heavy chains of about 50 kDa and two identical light chains of about 25 kDa, thus a tetrameric quaternary structure. The two heavy chains are linked to each other and to a light chain each by disulfide bonds. The resulting tetramer has two identical halves, which together form the Y-like shape. Each end of the fork contains an identicalantigen binding site. The various regions and domains of a typical IgG are depicted in the figure to the left. The Fc regions of IgGs bear a highly conserved N-glycosylation site. The N-glycans attached to this site are predominantly core-fucosylated diantennary structures of the complex type. In addition, small amounts of these N-glycans also bear bisecting GlcNAc and α-2,6-linked sialic acid residues.
The various regions and domains of a typical IgG
There are four IgG subclasses (IgG1, 2, 3, and 4) in humans, named in order of their abundance in serum (IgG1 being the most abundant).
|Name||Percent||Crosses placenta easily||Complement activator||Binds to Fc receptor on phagocytic cells||Half Life|
|IgG1||66%||yes (1.47)*||second-highest||high affinity||21 days|
|IgG2||23%||no (0.8)*||third-highest||extremely low affinity||21 days|
|IgG3||7%||yes (1.17)*||highest||high affinity||7 days|
|IgG4||4%||yes (1.15)*||no||intermediate affinity||21 days|
|* Quota cord/maternity concentrations blood. Based on data from a Japanese study on 228 mothers.|
To understand how decisions are made to transfer dying patients home from critical care units. - Source :PubMed
This study examined the outputs of research papers in diabetes from 31 European countries between 2002 and 2013, and their funding. - Source :PubMed
The three aims of this systematic review are to describe: (1) use of the term fundamental motor/movement skills (FMS) in published articles; (2) the quality of definitions; and (3) relative use of process- and product- oriented assessments to measure FMS. The inclusion criteria included: (a) peer-reviewed article, (b) printed in English, (c) published between January 2000 and 31 December 2015, (d) presence of either the term "fundamental motor or movement skill" in the title and/or abstract, and (e) FMS were a measured outcome. There has been an increase in the number of publications on FMS in recent years, with the majority of studies conducted in Australia (n = 41, 33%). Approximately 24% of studies (n = 30) did not provide any explicit definition of FMS. A majority of studies reported the use of process-oriented measures (n = 98, 79%) compared to product-oriented measures (n = 23, 19%), and few studies used both (n = 6, 5%). We recommend that researchers provide: (1) an operational definition of FMS that states FMS are the "building blocks" (or similar terminology) of more advanced, complex movements; (2) specific categories of skills that compose FMS; and (3) at least one specific example of a FMS. - Source :PubMed
A simple capillary zone electrophoresis method with direct ultraviolet detection has been developed for the analysis of naturally occurring diastereomeric 2-hydroxycitric acid lactones. Using 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer of pH 7, a baseline resolution Rs > 3.0 was observed for all organic acids selected for the present study. This method was employed for the quantitative determination of title acids present in the plant sources namely G. cambogia fruit rinds and H. sabdariffa calyx. Conversion of 2-hydroxycitric acids to their lactones on heating above plant sources is deliberated. Hydrolysis of hydroxycitric acid lactones in aqueous solution is reported for the first time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - Source :PubMed
Authors, readers, and editors share a common focus. Authors want to publish their work. Readers want to see high-quality, new information. Referees and editors serve to ensure that authors provide valid conclusions based on the quality of information that readers want. Common to each of these roles are instructions to authors. However, these are typically written in an uninspiring, legalistic style, as if they are a set of rules that authors must obey if they expect to get published. This renders the instructions boring and oppressive, if not forbidding. Yet they need not be so, if they are set in context.Instructions to authors can be cast in a way as to reflect common purpose. They can remind authors what perceptive readers want to see in a paper and, thereby, prompt authors to include all necessary information. If cast in this way, instructions to authors are not a set of rules by which to satisfy publishers; they become guidelines for the etiquette of communication between authors and their readers.Against this background, the present article has been composed to serve several purposes. Foremost, it amplifies instructions to authors beyond the conventional technicalities such as headings, layout, font size, and line spacing. It prescribes the type of information that should be communicated and explains the reasons for those recommendations. Doing so not only informs authors about what to write, but also informs readers and referees about what to look for in a good paper. Secondarily, the article publicizes examples of errors and deficiencies of manuscripts submitted to the Journal in the past that have delayed their acceptance and publication, which could have been avoided had the forthcoming recommendations been followed. The recommendations also reprise the elements taught in courses conducted by the Spine Intervention Society in their extended program on evidence-based medicine. Doing so underscores that instructions for authors are not a procedural technicality but a way to ensure that what authors write, what readers read, and what the Journal publishes comply with contemporary precepts of good evidence.Some 20 years ago, the Journal of the American Medical Association published a comprehensive series of articles with a common title: "Users' Guides to the Medical Literature" [1,2]. These articles focused on the science of statistical tests and critical appraisal, and their importance for properly understanding the literature. The present article differs in that it does not presume to teach technicalities. Instead, it describes and explains, step by step, the critical components of an article, what authors should include, and what readers should look for, so that the Journal can ensure that consistent, high-quality information is shared between its authors and readers.The present article focuses on articles concerning treatment of pain, largely because this type of article is more commonly submitted than articles on reliability or validity of diagnostic procedures. Although the present article principally focuses on papers for the Spine Section of the Journal, the same principles, appropriately adapted, serve for other sections. - Source :PubMed