Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite specific T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant. - Source :PubMed
Purpose: The majority of genomic alterations causing intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) in colorectal cancer (CRC) are thought to arise during early stages of carcinogenesis as a burst but only after truncal mutations in APC have expanded a single founder clone. We have investigated if the initial source of ITH is consequent to multiple independent lineages derived from different crypts harboring distinct truncal APC and driver KRAS mutations, thus challenging the prevailing monoclonal monocryptal model. Experimental design: High-depth next-generation sequencing and SNP arrays were performed in whole lesion extracts of 37 FAP colorectal adenomas. Also, ultra-sensitive genotyping of hotspot mutations of APC and KRAS was performed using nanofluidic PCRs in matched bulk biopsies (n=59) and crypts (n=591) from 18 adenomas and 7 carcinomas and adjacent normal tissues. Results: Multiple co-occurring truncal APC and driver KRAS alterations were uncovered in whole lesion extracts from adenomas and subsequently confirmed to belong to multiple clones. Ultra-sensitive genotyping of bulk biopsies and crypts revealed novel undetected APC mutations that were prominent among carcinomas, whereas abundant wild-type APC crypts were detected in adenomas. KRAS mutational heterogeneity within crypts was evident in both adenomas and carcinomas with a higher degree of concordance between biopsy and crypt genotyping in carcinomas. Non-random heterogeneity among crypts was also observed.
Experimental design: High-depth next-generation sequencing and SNP arrays were performed in whole lesion extracts of 37 FAP colorectal adenomas. Also, ultra-sensitive genotyping of hotspot mutations of APC and KRAS was performed using nanofluidic PCRs in matched bulk biopsies (n=59) and crypts (n=591) from 18 adenomas and 7 carcinomas and adjacent normal tissues.
Results: Multiple co-occurring truncal APC and driver KRAS alterations were uncovered in whole lesion extracts from adenomas and subsequently confirmed to belong to multiple clones. Ultra-sensitive genotyping of bulk biopsies and crypts revealed novel undetected APC mutations that were prominent among carcinomas, whereas abundant wild-type APC crypts were detected in adenomas. KRAS mutational heterogeneity within crypts was evident in both adenomas and carcinomas with a higher degree of concordance between biopsy and crypt genotyping in carcinomas. Non-random heterogeneity among crypts was also observed.Conclusions: The striking degree of non-random intercrypt heterogeneity in truncal and driver gene mutations observed in adenomas and carcinomas is consistent with a polycryptal model derived from multiple independent initiation linages as the source of early ITH in colorectal carcinogenesis. - Source :PubMed
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from T-cell mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Effector T-cell responses emerge early in disease development and expand as disease progresses. Following β cell destruction, a long-lived T-cell memory is generated that represents a barrier to islet transplantation and other cellular insulin-replacement therapies. Development of effective immunotherapies that control or ablate β cell destructive effector and memory T cell responses has the potential to prevent disease progression and recurrence. Targeting antigen expression to antigen-presenting cells inactivates cognate CD8(+) effector and memory T-cell responses and has therapeutic potential. Here we investigated this in the context of insulin-specific responses in the non-obese diabetic mouse where genetic immune tolerance defects could impact on therapeutic tolerance induction. Insulin-specific CD8(+) memory T cells transferred to mice expressing proinsulin in antigen-presenting cells proliferated in response to transgenically-expressed proinsulin and the majority were rapidly deleted. A small proportion of transferred insulin-specific Tmem remained undeleted and these were antigen-unresponsive, exhibited reduced TCR expression and H-2K(d)/insB15-23 tetramer binding and expressed co-inhibitory molecules. Expression of proinsulin in antigen-presenting cells also abolished the diabetogenic capacity of CD8(+) effector T cells. Therefore, destructive insulin-specific CD8(+) T cells are effectively inactivated by enforced proinsulin expression despite tolerance defects that exist in diabetes-prone NOD mice. These findings have important implications in developing immunotherapeutic approaches to T1D and other T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.Immunology and Cell Biology accepted article preview online, 14 June 2017. doi:10.1038/icb.2017.48. - Source :PubMed
The APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin-ligase complex targets cell cycle regulators for proteosomal degradation and helps prevent tumor development and accumulation of chromosomal aberrations. Replication stress has been proposed to be the main driver of genomic instability in the absence of Cdh1, but the real contribution of APC/C-Cdh1 to efficient replication, especially in normal cells, remains unclear. Here we show that, in primary MEFs, acute depletion or permanent ablation of Cdh1 slowed down replication fork movement and increased origin activity. Partial inhibition of origin firing does not accelerate replication forks, suggesting that fork progression is intrinsically limited in the absence of Cdh1. Moreover, exogenous supply of nucleotide precursors, or ectopic overexpression of RRM2, the regulatory subunit of Ribonucleotide Reductase, restore replication efficiency, indicating that dNTP availability could be impaired upon Cdh1 loss. Indeed, we found reduced dNTP levels in Cdh1-deficient MEFs. Importantly, DNA breakage is also significantly alleviated by increasing intracellular dNTP pools, strongly suggesting that genomic instability is the result of aberrant replication. These observations highlight the relevance of APC/C-Cdh1 activity during G1 to ensure an adequate supply of dNTPs to the replisome, prevent replication stress and the resulting chromosomal breaks and, ultimately, suppress tumorigenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 12 June 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.186. - Source :PubMed
The role of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in mitosis might be critical for regulation of genomic stability and chromosome segregation. APC gene mutations have been associated to have a role in colon cancer and since gastric and colon tumors share some common genetic lesions, it is relevant to investigate the role of APC tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer. - Source :PubMed