Streptavidin is a homo-tetrameric protein with a high affinity to biotin. The formed complex is highly stable against solvents, denaturants, extreme temperature or pH-values.
To establish a baseline for care and overall survival (OS) based upon contemporary first-line treatments prescribed in the era before the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors, for people with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without common actionable mutations. - Source :PubMed
- Source :PubMed
Targeted therapies have substantially changed the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with driver oncogenes. Given the high frequency, EGFR and ALK aberrations were the first to be detected and paved the way for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments. Other kinases such as ROS1 and more recently RET have emerged as promising targets, and ROS1 and RET TKIs are already available for precision medicine.We screened a large cohort of 713 Caucasian non-squamous NSCLC patients lacking EGFR/KRAS/BRAF/HER2/PI3KCA/ALK aberrations for ROS1 and RET rearrangements using fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine the frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of ROS1- and RET-positive patients.Frequencies of ROS1 and RET rearrangements were 2.1% and 2.52%, respectively. Contrary to common belief, both ROS1 and RET rearrangements were detected in patients with a history of smoking, and the RET-positive patients were not younger than the negative patients. Moreover, RET but not ROS1 rearrangement was associated with the female gender. Nearly half of the ROS1-rearranged patients were successfully treated with ROS1 TKIs. In contrast, only 5/18 RET-positive patients received off-label RET TKIs. Two patients had stable disease, and three experienced disease progression. In addition to the 18 RET-positive cases, 10 showed isolated 5' signals. The clinical relevance is unknown but if the frequency is confirmed by other groups, the question whether these patients are eligible to TKIs will arise. More potent RET TKIs are under development and may improve the response rate in RET-positive patients. Therefore, we recommend the routine implementation of RET testing in non-squamous NSCLC patients, including those with a history of smoking. - Source :PubMed
Numerous clinical trials show crizotinib has promising efficacy for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients which trigger the substitution of traditional chemotherapy to be the current standard first-line treatment for these patients. Conversely, few reports systematically analyze toxicity of crizotinib. Hence, we performed a first meta-analysis to determine the risk of crizotinib-related severe adverse events (SAEs) and fatal adverse events (FAEs) in ALK positive NSCLC patients. - Source :PubMed
Phosphorylated peptides are attractive targets in the study of the phosphoproteome. Here, we introduce a simple and convenient micropipette-tip method for the separation of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated peptides by using a phosphate-binding zinc(II) complex of 1,3-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)propan-2-olate (Phos-tag). A 200-μL micropipette tip containing 10 μL of swollen agarose beads functionalized with Phos-tag moieties was prepared. All steps in the phosphate-affinity separation (binding, washing, and elution) were conducted by using aqueous buffers at neutral pH values. The entire separation protocol required less than 30 min per sample. By means of three independent separation experiments, followed by mass spectrometric (MS) analyses, we identified 1,649 non-redundant phosphopeptides from the lysates of human embryonic kidney cells (the peptides sample derived from 25 μg proteins per an MS analysis). The average ratio of identified phosphopeptides to total peptides in the respective experiments was >90%, showing a high selectivity. Furthermore, the high correlation between the triplicate analyses was confirmed by scatter plots based on the normalized abundance of each peptide, as calculated by a label-free peptide relative quantification analysis in Progenesis QI. This micropipette-tip method would be thus used preferentially as an alternative to existing tools for the reliable enrichment of phosphopeptides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - Source :PubMed