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Catalog number: genta-ABS0253
Product Quantity: 0.1 ml
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Gene target: papillomavirus 18 e6


Symbol : E6 NIH gene
LocusTag : TS67_gp11
description : type 3 membrane protein; 7 transmembrane domains; chemokine receptor; involved in intracellular signalling
type of gene : protein-coding
Other designations : membrane protein BILF1
Modification date : 2015-07-15




Identification of C/EBPα as a novel target of the HPV8 E6 protein regulating miR-203 in human keratinocytes.

Patients suffering from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited skin disease, display a particular susceptibility to persistent infection with cutaneous genus beta-human papillomavirus (beta-HPV), such as HPV type 8. They have a high risk to develop non-melanoma skin cancer at sun-exposed sites. In various models evidence is emerging that cutaneous HPV E6 proteins disturb epidermal homeostasis and support carcinogenesis, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood as yet. In this study we demonstrate that microRNA-203 (miR-203), a key regulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation, is strongly down-regulated in HPV8-positive EV-lesions. We provide evidence that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), a differentiation-regulating transcription factor and suppressor of UV-induced skin carcinogenesis, directly binds the miR-203 gene within its hairpin region and thereby induces miR-203 transcription. Our data further demonstrate that the HPV8 E6 protein significantly suppresses this novel C/EBPα/mir-203-pathway. As a consequence, the miR-203 target ΔNp63α, a proliferation-inducing transcription factor, is up-regulated, while the differentiation factor involucrin is suppressed. HPV8 E6 specifically down-regulates C/EBPα but not C/EBPβ expression at the transcriptional level. As shown in knock-down experiments, C/EBPα is regulated by the acetyltransferase p300, a well-described target of cutaneous E6 proteins. Notably, p300 bound significantly less to the C/EBPα regulatory region in HPV8 E6 expressing keratinocytes than in control cells as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In situ analysis confirmed congruent suprabasal expression patterns of C/EBPα and miR-203 in non-lesional skin of EV-patients. In HPV8-positive EV-lesions both factors are potently down-regulated in vivo further supporting our in vitro data. In conclusion our study has unraveled a novel p300/C/EBPα/mir-203-dependent mechanism, by which the cutaneous HPV8 E6 protein may expand p63-positive cells in the epidermis of EV-patients and disturbs fundamental keratinocyte functions. This may drive HPV-mediated pathogenesis and may potentially also pave the way for skin carcinogenesis in EV-patients. - Source :PubMed

Chlorin e6 Functionalized Theranostic Multistage Nanovectors Transported by Stem Cells for Effective Photodynamic Therapy.

Approaches to achieve site-specific and targeted delivery that provide an effective solution to reduce negative, off target side-effects are urgently needed for cancer therapy. Here, we utilized a Trojan horse-like strategy to carry photosensitizer Chlorin e6 conjugated porous silicon multistage nanovectors with tumor homing mesenchymal stem cells for targeted photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. The inherent versatility of multistage nanovectors permitted the conjugation of photosensitizers to enable precise cell death induction (60%) upon photodynamic therapy, while simultaneously retaining the loading capacity to load various payloads, such as antitumor drugs and diagnostic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the mesenchymal stem cells that internalized the multistage nanovectors conserved similar proliferation patterns and in vitro affinity to migrate and infiltrate breast cancer cells. In vivo administration of the mesenchymal stem cells carrying photosensitizer-conjugated multistage nanovectors in mice bearing a primary breast tumor confirmed their tropism towards cancer sites exhibiting similar targeting kinetics to control cells. In addition, this approach yielded in a >70% decrease in local tumor cell viability after in vivo photodynamic therapy. In summary, these results show the proof-of-concept of how photosensitizer conjugated multistage nanovectors transported by stem cells can target tumors and be used for effective site-specific cancer therapy while potentially minimizing potential negative side-effects. - Source :PubMed

Selective p300 inhibitor C646 inhibited HPV E6-E7 genes, altered glucose metabolism and induced apoptosis in Cervical Cancer cells.

High risk HPV infection is a causative factor of cervical cancer. The constitutive expression of HPV E6-E7 genes is important for the maintenance of cancer phenotypes. The cellular transcription co-activator p300 plays a crucial role in the regulation of HPV genes thus it was targeted for the inhibition of HPV-associated cervical cancer. In the present study, HPV positive cervical cells were treated with C646, a selective inhibitor of p300, to investigate its influence on HPV E6-E7 expression and cancer cell growth. Results of RT-qPCR, Western-blot and promoter activity assays showed that C646 inhibited the transcription of HPV E6-E7, which was accompanied with the accumulation of p53 protein. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was suppressed, glucose metabolism was disrupted and apoptosis was induced via the intrinsic pathway. Generally, the anti-cervical cancer potential of C646 was demonstrated and a novel mechanism was proposed in this study. - Source :PubMed

Characterization of HPV18 E6-specific T cell responses and establishment of HPV18 E6-expressing tumor model.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the primary etiologic factor of cervical cancer, and subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV18 is the second most prevalent high-risk HPV type after HPV16. Furthermore, HPV18 is responsible for approximately 12% of cervical squamous cell carcinoma and 37% of cervical adenocarcinoma cases worldwide. In this study, we aimed to characterize the HPV18-E6-specific epitope and establish an HPV18 animal tumor model to evaluate the E6-specific immune response induced by our DNA vaccine. We vaccinated naïve C57BL/6 mice with a prototype DNA vaccine, pcDNA3-HPV18-E6, via intramuscular injection followed by electroporation, and analyzed the E6-specific CD8+ T cell responses by flow cytometry using a reported T cell epitope. We then characterized the MHC restriction element for the characterized HPV18-E6 epitope. Additionally, we generated an HPV18-E6-expressing tumor cell line to study the antitumor effect mediated by E6-specific immunity. We observed a robust HPV18-E6aa67-75 peptide-specific CD8+ T cell response after vaccination with pcDNA3-HPV18-E6. Further characterization demonstrated that this epitope was mainly restricted by H-2K(b), but was also weakly presented by HLA-A(∗)0201, as previously reported. We observed that vaccination with pcDNA3-HPV18-E6 significantly inhibited the growth of HPV18-E6-expressing tumor cells, TC-1/HPV18-E6, in mice. An antibody depletion study demonstrated that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are necessary for the observed antitumor immunity. The characterization of HPV18-E6-specific T cell responses and the establishment of HPV18-E6-expressing tumor cell line provide infrastructures for further development of HPV18-E6 targeted immunotherapy. - Source :PubMed

E6 proteins of α and β cutaneous HPV types differ in their ability to potentiate Wnt signaling.

We recently showed that E6 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, a mucosal high-risk α-PV type, can potentiate Wnt/β-catenin/TCF signaling. Here we investigated the transcriptional activities of E6 proteins of cutaneous HPV types from the β and α genera. Results from reporter-gene assays showed that similar to HPV16 E6, E6 of HPV10, a cutaneous α-HPV type that is prevalent in skin warts, efficiently enhances and stimulates Wnt/β-catenin/TCF transcription. HPV10 E6 also effectively elevated the expression levels of β-catenin and promoted its nuclear accumulation. E6 proteins of β-HPV types 8, 24, 38 and 49, which are prevalent in skin cancer, exhibited lower activities in all tested functions. The differences in activity correlated with E6's competence to interact with the ubiquitin ligase E6AP. This study reveals a role for E6 proteins of diverse cutaneous HPV types in potentiation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, irrespective of their carcinogenic potential. - Source :PubMed

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