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Catalog number: genta-ABS0244
Product Quantity: 0.1 ml
Supplier: AbD

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Gene target: spectrin alpha beta


Symbol : betA NIH gene
LocusTag : NGR_c06990
description : choline dehydrogenase
type of gene : protein-coding
Modification date : 2016-04-19




Synapsin I phosphorylation is dysregulated by beta-amyloid oligomers and restored by valproic acid.

Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent form of dementia in the elderly but the precise causal mechanisms are still not fully understood. Growing evidence supports a significant role for Aβ42 oligomers in the development and progression of Alzheimer's. For example, intracellular soluble Aβ oligomers are thought to contribute to the early synaptic dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear. Here, we identify a novel mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the reported synaptic dysfunction. Using primary rat hippocampal neurons exposed for a short period of time to Aβ42 oligomers, we show a disruption in the activity-dependent phosphorylation cycle of SynapsinI at Ser9. SynapsinI is a pre-synaptic protein that responds to neuronal activity and regulates the availability of synaptic vesicles to participate in neurotransmitter release. Phosphorylation of SynapsinI at Ser9, modulates its distribution and interaction with synaptic vesicles. Our results show that in neurons exposed to Aβ42 oligomers, the levels of phosphorylated Ser9 of SynapsinI remain elevated during the recovery period following neuronal activity. We then investigated if this effect could be targeted by a putative therapeutic regime using valproic acid (a short branch-chained fatty acid) that has been proposed as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Exposure of Aβ42 treated neurons to valproic acid, showed that it restores the physiological regulation of SynapsinI after depolarisation. Our data provide a new insight on Aβ42-mediated pathology in Alzheimer's disease and supports the use of Valproic acid as a possible pharmaceutical intervention for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. - Source :PubMed

Associations between the DBH gene, plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase activity and cognitive measures in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

The dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) systems modulate cognitive function. Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) converts DA to NE, and its activity is under strong genetic control. This study examines the association of plasma DβH (pDβH) activity, DBH gene polymorphisms (-1021C>T, rs1611115 and 444G>A, rs1108580) and cognitive deficits in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. We assessed pDβH activity and cognitive function using the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Trail Making Test (TMT) A-B, Stroop color-word test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in 200 patients with schizophrenia before and after 8weeks of antipsychotic treatment (96 patients completed assessments at baseline and post-treatment). We found that rs1611115 was significantly associated with pDβH activity, and there was strong LD between rs1611115 and rs1108580 polymorphisms. Correlation analysis indicated that pDβH activity correlated nominally with improvement in VFT score after 8weeks antipsychotic treatment. Moreover, there was a significant genotype effect of the rs1108580 on VFT: the VFT score of patients with AA genotype was higher than that of patients with AG/GG genotype either at baseline or the end of 8 weeks after treatment. However, this difference was not observed for rs1611115. Our findings confirm a strong association between genotype at rs1611115 and pDβH activity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Our data also suggest the rs1108580 polymorphism may influence some aspects of cognitive function in schizophrenia. - Source :PubMed

Salusin-β mediates high glucose-induced endothelial injury via disruption of AMPK signaling pathway.

The dysregulated proliferation, migration, apoptosis and angiogenesis of endothelial cells are involved in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. The circulating salusin-β levels were increased in diabetic patients, and salusin-β contributes to diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. However, the roles of salusin-β in diabetes mellitus-induced endothelial dysfunction are not fully understood. Herein, we demonstrated the increased expressions of salusin-β in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in HG medium. Exposure of HUVECs to HG inhibited the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, retarded cell cycle progression of endothelial cells, which were rescued by knockdown of salusin-β. We also established that silencing of salusin-β with adenoviruse-mediated shRNA reduced high glucose-induced apoptosis by up-regulating Bcl-2 expression and down-regulating Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Blockade of salusin-β ameliorated HG-induced suppression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Of note, pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor Compound C abolished salusin-β silencing-mediated endothelial protective effects. In summary, our results highlighted the involvement of salusin-β in HG-related endothelial dysfunction, and salusin-β contributed high glucose-induced endothelial injury via inactivation of AMPK signaling pathway. - Source :PubMed

Optimizing bone morphogenic protein 4-mediated human embryonic stem cell differentiation into trophoblast-like cells using fibroblast growth factor 2 and transforming growth factor-β/activin/nodal signalling inhibition.

Several studies have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be differentiated into trophoblast-like cells if exposed to bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and/or inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/activin/nodal signalling pathways. The goal of this study was to investigate how the inhibitors of these pathways improve the efficiency of hESC differentiation when compared with basic BMP4 treatment. RNA sequencing was used to analyse the effects of all possible inhibitor combinations on the differentiation of hESC into trophoblast-like cells over 12 days. Genes differentially expressed compared with untreated cells were identified at seven time points. Additionally, expression of total human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and its hyperglycosylated form (HCG-H) were determined by immunoassay from cell culture media. We showed that FGF2 inhibition with BMP4 activation up-regulates syncytiotrophoblast-specific genes (CGA, CGB and LGALS16), induces several molecular pathways involved in embryo implantation and triggers HCG-H production. In contrast, inhibition of the TGF-β/activin/nodal pathway decreases the ability of hESC to form trophoblast-like cells. Information about the conditions needed for hESC differentiation toward trophoblast-like cells helps us to find an optimal model for studying the early development of human trophoblasts in normal and in complicated pregnancy. - Source :PubMed

Combination of histidine, lysine, methionine, and leucine promotes β-casein synthesis via the mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

The ratio of different AA in the diets of cows is vital to improve milk protein yield. β-Casein is one of the important milk proteins with high nutritive value. However, the suitable ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) for the expression of β-casein in the immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line is not fully characterized. This study employed response surface methodology to determine the optimal ratio of His, Lys, Met, and Leu on β-casein expression level in vitro and clarified the effect of the 4 EAA on β-casein via the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. A central composite design containing 5 axial points per EAA and 28 combinations of the 4 EAA was used in our study. The results of response surface methodology and the changes of the mTOR-related signaling proteins were determined by western blot. The results showed that β-casein level was significantly affected by all 4 EAA (R(2) = 0.71). The optimum conditions for β-casein expression are found to be 5.47 mM of His, 7.48 mM of Lys, 1.17 mM of Met, and 8.21 mM of Leu (His:Lys:Met:Leu = 5:6:1:7) in the designed scope of concentration. The interaction of Leu and Met significantly affected β-casein expression (P < 0.01). The phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser(2481)), regulatory associated protein of target of rapamycin (Ser(792)), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (Thr(389)), ribosomal protein S6 (Ser(235/236)), and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (Thr(56)) was increased with the supplementation of either single EAA or an optimal combination of EAA. However, the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (Thr(37)) was decreased with the addition of Lys, Met, or Leu alone. Furthermore, the phosphorylation (P) of eIF2α (Ser(51)) was decreased when Met was supplemented alone. Under the optimal mixture of 4 EAA, the phosphorylation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling proteins was significantly greater than the single EAA supplementations and the expression of β-casein was 98% as high as the positive control (i.e., medium with all AA). A similar trend was found with P-ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 and P-ribosomal protein S6. In conclusion, the extracellular concentrations of His, Lys, Met, and Leu at a ratio of 5:6:1:7 maximized β-casein expression in the immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line may occur via activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling pathway. - Source :PubMed

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